A Brief Overview of the Use of Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO) in COVID-19 Patients with Severe Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS)
Keywords:COVID-19, ARDS, CARDS, ECMO
A serious complication of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Hypoxemia refractory to traditional management, including invasive positive pressure ventilation, is not uncommon with COVID-19. It can lead to circulatory failure necessitating the use of mechanical circulatory support devices, specifically extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO).
This paper provides a brief update on the use and indications of ECMO for adult patients with COVID-19 around the world.
We conducted a rapid umbrella review on the use of ECMO in treating COVID-19-related ARDS (CARDS), as well as current indications and contraindications for the initiation of ECMO. We reviewed the use of venovenous (V-V) ECMO and veno-arterial (V-A) ECMO in CARDS.
V-V ECMO is the primary ECMO mode employed in the majority of the patients who required ECMO support for CARDS. Although the duration of V-V ECMO in COVID-19 was longer than the V-V ECMO in non-COVID-19 patients with ARDS, the mortality rate appears similar. Meta-analyses reviewed reported an in-hospital mortality rate ranging from 37% to 49% for COVID-19 patients who required V-V ECMO.
The survival benefit of ECMO in COVID-19 patients with severe cardiopulmonary failure is not clearly established, but V-V ECMO may be considered in adults with COVID-19 and severe cardiopulmonary compromise when resources are available. V-A ECMO may be considered in COVID-19 patients with severe cardiac failure, but limited data are available on survival benefits.
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Copyright (c) 2023 Antony Macido, Vidya Nair
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